In the early twenty-first century, many have lamented the lack of a sufficient scientific workforce capable of contributing to the modern knowledge-intensive economy. At the same time, others have noted the lack of a scientific workforce capable of collaborating across scientific disciplines. The combination of these factors leads to a need to better prepare the scientific workforce for participation in the larger collaborative scientific enterprise and contribute to the needs of society more broadly. In this chapter, we focus on training and education where knowledge is diverse and members collaborate to address significant societal and scientific problems. We draw from a number of literatures to distill key ideas about teamwork competencies identified as being foundational to effectiveness for the scientific workforce.